The fundamentals of our technology are grounded in academic research. Here’s some further information on those papers.

Overtraining and Overreaching: Causes, Effects, & Prevention

Mackinnon, L. T., and S. L. Hooper. "Overtraining and overreaching: Causes, effects and prevention." (2000): 487-498.

Several investigations have suggested that overtraining is best monitored by athletes themselves using self-analysis tools. Daily documentation by athletes including sources and ratings of stress, fatigue, muscle soreness, quality of sleep, irritability, and perceived exertion during training or standardized exercise may be effective in predicting and identifying overtraining. Read more.

Monitoring Overtraining in Athletes: Recommendations

Hooper, Sue L., and Laurel Traeger Mackinnon. Sports medicine 20.5 (1995): 321-327.

Identification of markers of overtraining would allow coaches and athletes to confidently adjust training loads to maximise training benefits yet avoid overtraining, thereby, optimising performance. The purpose of this leading article is to provide recommendations for the monitoring of overtraining in athletes. In the process, this review will highlight some of the problems associated with determining the appropriate method for monitoring athletes. Overtraining and overtraining syndrome have been extensively reviewed in several recent papersII-3] and this paper does not attempt to present the current state of knowledge on this topic. Read more.

Recovery of Competitive Swimmers from Intense Training: A Full Report

Hooper, Sue L., and Laurel Traeger Mackinnon. Australian Sports Commission (1996)

The purpose of this study was to extend our previous research on objective indicators of recovery during the taper period prior to competition and to examine the athletes' response to different tapering techniques. The project aimed to address the following questions: 1. Do daily self-ratings of well-being by the athlete reliably indicate successful recovery and competitive performance? 2. How should the training load be reduced during the taper so that recovery and performance are maximised? Read more.

Preventing overtraining in athletes in high-intensity sports and stress/recovery monitoring

Kellmann, M. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 20.s2 (2010): 95-102.

In sports, the importance of optimizing the recovery–stress state is critical. Effective recovery from intense training loads often faced by elite athletes can often determine sporting success or failure. In recent decades, athletes, coaches, and sport scientists have been keen to find creative, new methods for improving the quality and quantity of training for athletes. These efforts have consistently faced barriers, including overtraining, fatigue, injury, illness, and burnout. Physiological and psychological limits dictate a need for research that addresses the avoidance of overtraining, maximizes recovery, and successfully negotiates the fine line between high and excessive training loads. Monitoring instruments like the Recovery–Stress Questionnaire for Athletes can assist with this research by providing a tool to assess their perceived state of recovery. This article will highlight the importance of recovery for elite athletes and provide an overview of monitoring instruments. Read more.

Monitoring the athlete training response: subjective self-reported measures trump commonly used objective measures: a systematic review

Saw, Anna E., Luana C. Main, and Paul B. Gastin. British journal of sports medicine (2015): bjsports-2015.

This review provides further support for practitioners to use subjective measures to monitor changes in athlete well-being in response to training. Subjective measures may stand alone, or be incorporated into a mixed methods approach to athlete monitoring, as is current practice in many sport settings. Read more.

Enhancing Recovery: Preventing Underperformance in Athletes

By Michael Kellmann

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Athlete Burnout: Is the Type of Sport a Factor?

Holden, Shelley L.; Keshock, Christopher M.; Forester, Brooke E.; Pugh, Steven F. - International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology Volume 4, Issue 1, 2011

Athletes sometimes become disenchanted with sport participation and stop competing at what might have been the pinnacle of their sport careers. Prior research has determined that athletes are likely to burnout if they are participating in sport for reasons other than sport attraction. However, prior research has not studied female athletes’ comparative levels of burnout among various sports. … Read More.

Monitoring Training Load, Recovery, Overtraining and Upper respiratory Infection in Taekwondo

Haddad Monoem, David Behm, Montassar Tebben and Karim Chamari

This chapter presents two common objective methods based on heart rate (HR) for monitoring training load (TL) in Taekwondo (TKD). A model is proposed for monitoring TL, overtraining, recovery and upper respiratory infection in TKD with simple and practical methods such as rating of perceived exertion (RPE), Hooper Index. … Read More.

Identifying mediators of training effects on performance-related psychobiosocial states

Anthony Barnett, Ester Cerin, Peter Reaburn, Sue Hooper - Volume 13, Issue 5, September 2012

Relationships between training load, psychobiosocial (PBS) states and performance are dynamic and individual-specific. The nature of these relationships can be investigated using a combination of dynamic linear models (DLMs) and mediating variable analysis, potentially assisting applied sports psychologists … Read More.

Influence of fatigue, stress, muscle soreness and sleep on perceived exertion during submaximal effort

Monoem Haddada, Anis Chaouachia, Del P. Wongb, Carlo Castagnac, Mourad Hamblia, Olivier Hued, Karim Chamarie - Volume 119, 2 July 2013

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the Hooper’s Index variations (i.e., self-ratings of fatigue, stress, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and sleep) on rating of perceived exertion during a 10 min sub maximal exercise training session (RPE-10 min) and then check the stability and the internal consistency of RPE-10 min. Seventeen junior soccer players took part in this study. …Read More.

Impact of Sport Context and Support on the Use of a Self-Report Measure for Athlete Monitoring

Anna E. Saw, Luana C. Main, Paul B. Gastin - Published (online): 01-12-2015

Athlete self-report measures (ASRM) are a popular method of athlete monitoring in high-performance sports. With increasing recognition and accessibility, ASRM may potentially be utilized by athletes from diverse sport contexts. The purpose of the present study was to improve understanding of ASRM implementation across different sport contexts by observing uptake and compliance of a newly implemented ASRM over 16 weeks, and investigating the perceived roles and factors influencing implementation … Read More.